- Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.
- Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan
- dengan tjara seksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.
- Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05
- Atas nama bangsa Indonesia.
Indonesia tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Disanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku
Bangsa dan Tanah Airku
Marilah kita berseru
*courtesy of LirikLaguIndonesia.net
Bangsaku Rakyatku semuanya
Untuk Indonesia Raya
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya….. ! ! !
Dear all people in the world.
There is, many colours of religious, many colours of custom, green “zamrud khatulistiwa” area, friendlich people, and very beauty nature, all is respectfull and peacefull for all human in the world. That is Indonesia.
Dahin ist, mancher bei fromm, mancher bei brauch, grbn “zamrud khatulistiwa” bereich, friendlich bevulkern, und sehr scunheit natur, alles ist respect and peace denn alles im welt. Das ist Indonesia.
Sonoba toiunoha, tashoku shussekenteki, tashoku fuushuu, suishoku “zamrud khatulistiwa” tokoro, yuujin tamikusa, ruurokukakou, uyamai tomo heian zensuu ninnin naka zokujin. torimonaosazu Indonesia. haik.
- GARUDA INDONESIA
- the flag
- indonesia map
Indonesia with UNCLOS 1982.
United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea (UNCLOS)
The States Parties to this Convention,
Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues to the law of the sea and aware of the jistoric significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,
Nothing that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 an 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,
Conscious that the problems of ocean space are closely interelatted and need to be considered as a whole,
Recognizing the desirability of establishing through this convention, with due regard for the soveriegnity of all states, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful usue of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,
Bearing in mind that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interest and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interest and needs of developing countries, wheter coastal or land-locked,
Desiring by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1070 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly eclared inter alia that the area of the se-bed and ocean floor and suboil thereof, beyonds the limits of national juridiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,
Believing that the codification and progessive development of the law of the sea ahieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthjening of peace, security, c0-operation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equalrights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, inacoordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nastions ad set forth in the charter,
Affirming that matters not regulated by this Convention continued to be governed by the rules and principles general international law,
Have agreed as follows :
Use of terms and scope
1. For the purpose of this Convention :
(1) “Area” means the sea bed and ocean floor and suboil therepf, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction ;
(2) “Authority” means the International Sea-Bed Authority ;
(3) “Activities in the Area” means all activities of exploration of, the resources of the Area ;
(4) “Polution of the marine environment” means the introduction by man, directly, or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and others legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities;
(5) “Dumping” means :
(i) any deliberate disposal of wastes or matter from vessels, aircraft, platforms or man-made structures at sea;
(ii) any deliberate disposal of vessels, aircraft, platforms or others man-made structures at sea;
does not include :
(i) the disposal of wastes or other matter incidental to, or derived from the normal operations of vessels, aircraft, platforms or others man-made structures at sea and their equipment, others than wastes or other matter transported by or to vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, operating for the purpose of disposal of such matter or derived from the treatment of such wastes or other matter on such vessels, aircraft, platforms or structuress;
(ii) placement of matter for a purpose other than mare disposal thereof, provided that such placement is not contrary to the aims of this Convention.
2. (1) “States Parties” means States which have consented to be bound by the Convention and for which this Convention is in force.
(2) This convention applies mutatis mutandis to the entities reffered to in article 305, paragraph 1 (b), (c), (d), (e) an (f), which become Parties to this Convention in accordance with the condition relevant to each, and to extent “states parties” refers to those entities.
TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOS ZONE
SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil
1. The sovereignity of a coatal States extend, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic waters, to an adjacent belt of sea described as territorial sea.
2. This sovereignity extend to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil.
3. The sovereignity over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law.
SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA
Breadth of the territorial sea
Every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.
Outer limit of the territorial sea
The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea.
Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measure right the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large map scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state.
In the case of island situated on attols or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-waterline of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal state.
1. In locatlities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of island along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
2. where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extend of the low-water line and, not with standing subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baseline shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.
3. The drawing of straight baseline must not depart to any appreciable extebnd from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of itnternal waters.
4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless light houses or similiar instalations which are permanently above sea level have the lines been bulit on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received the general international recognition.
5. Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interest peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importances of which are clearly evidenced by long usage.
6. The system of straight baseline may not be applied by a state in such a manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another state from the high seas or an exchesive economic zone.
1. Except as provided in part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea from part of the internal waters of the state.
2. Where the establihsment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set worth in article 7 has effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.
Mouth of rivers
If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.
1. This article relates only to bays the coast of which belong to a single State.
2. For the purpose of this convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is a large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn accross the mouth of that indentation.
3. For the purposed of measurement, the are of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of island, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semi-curcle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water of the indentation.
4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed teherby shall be considered as internal waters.
5. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bays exceed 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shalll be drawn within the bay in suh a manner as to enclose the maximum area of the water that that is possible with a line of that length.
6. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called “historic” bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in articles 7 is applied.
For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded ad forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.
RoadsteadsRoadstead whisch are normaaly used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.
1. A low tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an isaland, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.
2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distanced exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.
Combination of methods for determining baselines
The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methodes provided or in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.
Detemination of the territorial sea between States with oppositee or adjacent coasts
Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the state is entitled, failing agreement between them to the countrary, to extend its territorial beyond the median line every point of which is wequidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two states is measured. Are above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary b reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two states in a way which is at variance therewith.
Charts and of geogrophical co-ordinates
1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordances with articles 7, 9, and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delemitation drawn in accordance with article 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, a list of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.
2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or list of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGES IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA
SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS
Right of innocent passage
Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, wheter coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passages trough the territorial sea.
Meaning of passages
1. Passages means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of :
(a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead or port facility outside internal waters; or
(b) procedding to or from internal waters or a call at such roadstead or port facility.
2. Passages shall be continous and expeditious. However, passages includes stopping and anchoring, but only so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by forces majeure or distrees or for the purpose of rendering assistances to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distrees.
Meanings of innocent passage
1. Passage innocent so long as it not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal States. Such passages shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with others rules of international law.
2. Passages of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudical to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities :
(a) any threat or use of force againts the sovereignity, territorial integrity or political independences of the coastal States, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;
(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;
(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defences or security of the coastal States;
(d) any act of propanganda aimed at affecting the defences or security of the coastal States;
(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;
(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military devices;
(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal States;
(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;
(i) any fishing activities;
(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;
(k) any act aimed at interfering with any sytem of communication or any other facilities or installations of he coastal State;
(l) any others activity not having a direct bearing on passage.
Submarines and other underwater vehicles
In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater are required to navigated on the surface and to show their flag.
Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage
1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in confirmity with the visions of this Convention and other rules of international law relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following :
(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic,
(b) the protection of navigational aids and facilities and others facilities or instalations;
(c) the protection of cables and pipelines;
(d) the conservation of the living resources of the sea;
(e) the preventatiopn of infringement of the of the fisheries laws and regulations of the coastal state;
(f) the perservation of the environment of the coastal state and prevention, reduction and control od pollutionthereof;
(g) marine scientific research and hydrographic surveys;
(h) the prevention of infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulation of the coastal state.
2. Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships unless they giving effect to generally accepted international rules or standars.
3. The coastal state shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.
4. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea shall comply with all such laws nad regulations and all generally accepted international regulations to the prevention of collisions at sea